Problemas actuales de la sociología de las artes marciales según la Escuela Rzeszow. Current problems of the sociology of martial arts according to the Rzeszow School

Wojciech J. Cynarski

Resumen


Las artes marciales son métodos de lucha de combate sin armas y el uso de armas combinadas con un elemento espiritual. Aquí se da un marco teórico apropiado de acuerdo con los parámetros de la sociología de la cultura, la sociología de la cultura física, la sociología y la antropología de artes marciales. Un método utilizado aquí es el análisis del contenido de la literatura y un amplio discurso temático de fuentes y estudios. En particular, el factor humanista debe tenerse en cuenta como un estándar metodológico de la sociología humanista. Se describió el desarrollo institucional de la sociología de las artes marciales, así como ciertos problemas relacionados con el período de búsqueda de identidad científica, temas de investigación más populares, métodos de investigación y una propuesta para la clasificación de áreas de exploración científica de acuerdo con la escala de investigación. En sociología de las artes marciales, se indicaron los problemas de desarrollo teórico, metodológico e institucional. Dentro de los enfoques teóricos, se seleccionaron diferentes paradigmas, con la sugerencia de preferencia por enfoques sistémico-humanísticos. En el área de la metodología de investigación se describieron los enfoques dominantes, especialmente los métodos cualitativos particularmente valiosos. En la descripción de la institucionalización de la sociología de las artes marciales se indicaron iniciativas dispersivas populares recientemente. Actualmente, varias instituciones científicas presentan la subdisciplina analizada con el estado de autonomía relativa.

Palabras clave


artes marciales; deportes de combate; teoría sociológica; sociología de artes marciales; direcciones de investigación

Texto completo:

PDF

Referencias


Bar-On Cohen, E. (2006). Kime and the moving body: somatic codes in Japanese martial arts. Body and Society, 12(4): 73-93

Ben Messaoud, W. (2015). Social representations of karate among young people. Ido Movement for Culture. Journal of Martial Arts Anthropology, 15(4): 39–48. doi: 10.14589/ido.15.4.6

Brown, D., Jennings, G., & Leledaki, A. (2008). The Changing Charismatic Status of the Performing Male Body in Asian Martial Arts Films. Sport in Society, 11(2-3), 174–194. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17430430701823414

Brown, D., & Leledaki, A. (2010). Eastern movement forms as body-self transforming cultural practices in the West: towards a sociological perspective. Cultural Sociology, 4(1): 123-154.

Burke, D. T., Al-Adawi, S., Lee, Y. T., & Audette, J. (2007). Martial arts as sport and therapy. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 47(1), 96–102.

Buse, G. J. (2006). No holds barred sport fighting: a 10 year review of mixed martial arts competition. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 40(2), 169–72. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2005.021295

Chan, S. (2000). The construction and export of culture as artefact: the case of Japanese martial arts. Body and Society, 6(1): 69-74.

Channon, A., & Jennings, G. (2014). Exploring embodiment through martial arts and combat sports: a review of empirical research. Sport in Society; doi: 10.1080/17430437.2014.882906

Cho, K. J., & Lee, Y. C. (2009). A qualitative study on Eastern martial arts. Pan-Asian Journal of Sports & Physical Education, 1(1): 130-8.

Cynarski, W. J. (2001). O. Weiβ’s ‘Introduction to the Sociology of Sport’. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 36(1): 102-5.

Cynarski, W. J. (2005). Sociological Aspects of Far Eastern Martial Arts. Research Yearbook. Studies in Physical Education and Sport, 11: 103-108.

Cynarski, W. J. (2006). The institutionalization of martial arts. European Journal for Sport and Society, 3(1): 55-61.

Cynarski, W. J. (2008). Westernization of martial arts or westernisation of Western physical culture on the example of jujutsu. In: W. J. Cynarski, A. Nowakowski, S. Zaborniak (eds.), Studies of the history and theory of physical culture. The jubilee book dedicated to Professor Kazimierz Obodynski, pp. 375-385. Rzeszow, Poland: Rzeszow University Press (in Polish)

Cynarski, W. J. (2011). Towards the sociology of psychophysical systems of self-realization. Journal of Health Promotion and Recreation, 1(1): 21-28.

Cynarski, W. J. (2012a). Anthropology of martial arts. Studies and essays from sociology and philosophy of martial arts. Rzeszow, Poland: Rzeszow University Press (in Polish).

Cynarski, W. J. (2012b). Non-entertaining excursion in the perspective of the systemic-holistic anthropology of tourism. In: I. Jirasek, J. Kosiewicz, D. N. Roberson (eds.), Sport and Physical Education in the Mirror of the Social Sciences. 3rd Conference of the ISSSS, Palacky University, Fac Phys Culture, Olomouc, Czech Rep., http://apps.webofknowledge.com, pp. 124-130. ´

Cynarski, W. J. (2012c). Sociological dimension. In: W. J. Cynarski, Martial Arts Phenomenon – research and Multidisciplinary Interpretation, Lykeion Library, vol. 15, Rzeszow, Poland: Rzeszow University Press, pp. 95-130.

Cynarski, W. J. (2013). Social stratification in Japanese and some other martial arts: A comparison and discussion of changes. Physical Culture and Sport. Studies and Research, LIX(1), 49–59. doi:10.2478/pcssr-2013-0024

Cynarski, W. J. (2014). The New Paradigm of Science Suitable for the 21st Century. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 149: 269-275.

Cynarski, W. J., & Litwiniuk, A. (2006). The violence in boxing. Archives of Budo, 2: 1-10.

Cynarski, W. J., & Obodynski, K. (2004). Modern sociology and sports philosophy in the face of socio-cultural issues of Far Eastern martial arts based on Polish and German papers from the years 1995-2001. In: Anders G., Mrazek J., Norden G., Weiss O. (eds.), European Integration and Sport, Münster, Germany: LIT, pp. 47-60.

Cynarski, W. J., & Obodynski, K. (2007). Sociology of Far Eastern martial arts – problems and perspectives. Archives of Budo, 3: 49–53. Retrieved from http://www.archbudo.com/get_pdf.php?IDMAN=11480.pdf

Cynarski, W. J., & Obodynski, K. (2011a). Sociological reflection on martial arts or sociology of psychophysical self-realization systems. Revista Portuguesa de Ciências do Desporto / Portuguese Journal of Sport Sciences, 11(1): 355-8.

Cynarski, W. J., & Obodynski, K. (2011b). Sociological reflection on the martial arts or the sociology of psychophysical self-realization systems. In: W. J. Cynarski (ed.), Selected Areas of Intercultural Dialogue in Martial Arts, Rzeszow, Poland: Reszow University Press, pp. 34-45.

Cynarski, W. J., Obodynski, K., Litwiniuk, A., & Sieber, L. (2009). Exemplification of the process of institutionalization of far eastern martial arts. In: W. J. Cynarski (ed.), Martial Arts and Combat Sports – Humanistic Outlook, Rzeszow, Poland: Rzeszow University Press, pp. 83-89.

Cynarski, W. J., Niewczas, M. (2017). Perception and attitude towards Karate among the members of the Polish Junior representation squad: diagnostic survey. Arrancada, vol. 17(31): 58-65.

Cynarski, W. J., Pawelec, P., Zeng, H., Yu, J. H., Vit, M., Bielec, G., Slopecki, J., Kubala, K., & Blazejewski, W. (2017). Social determinants of attitudes towards health in martial arts: comparison between combat sports and combat systems and martial arts practitioners. Ido Movement for Culture. Journal of Martial Arts Anthropology, 17(1): 23–29. doi: 10.14589/ido.17.1.4

Cynarski, W. J., & Reguli, Z. (2014). Martial arts science institutionalisation: specialized scientific periodicals. Ido Movement for Culture. Journal of Martial Arts Anthropology, 14(1): 54–62. doi: 10.14589/ido.14.1.5

Cynarski, W. J., & Sieber, L. (2007). A martial arts warrior as a tourist. International Journal of Eastern Sports & Physical Education, 5(1): 26-41.

Cynarski, W. J., & Sieber, L. (2015a). Martial arts (alternative) medicine – channels of transmission to Europe. Ido Movement for Culture. Journal of Martial Arts Anthropology, 15(3): 8–21. doi: 10.14589/ido.15.3.2

Cynarski, W. J., & Sieber, L. (2015b). Women in martial arts: three archetypes. IMAS Quarterly / IQ Journal, 4(2): 42-55.

Cynarski, W. J., Sieber, L., Duricek, M., Rzepko, M., & Krol, P. (2013). Barriers to the development of Far Eastern martial arts in selected areas of Central Europe. Ido Movement for Culture. Journal of Martial Arts Anthropology, 13(1): 10-6.

Cynarski, W. J., Sieber, L., & Litwiniuk, A. (2005). Perception, understanding and adaptation of Asian martial arts in the West: a sociological analysis. Archives of Budo, 1: 13–18.

Cynarski, W. J., Sieber, L., & Szajna, G. (2014). Martial arts in physical culture. Ido Movement for Culture. Journal of Martial Arts Anthropology, 14(4): 31–38. doi: 10.14589/ido.14.4.4

Cynarski, W. J., & Skowron, J. (2014). An analysis of the conceptual language used for the general theory of martial arts - Japanese, Polish and English terminology. Ido Movement for Culture. Journal of Martial Arts Anthropology, 14(3): 49-66. doi: 10.14589/ido.14.3.7

Cynarski, W. J., & Szajna, G. (2015). Anthropology of martial arts: women warriors. In: J. Oborny, O. Staud, B. Vrtiakova (eds.), Cultural anthropology and sport. Collection of reviewed scientific papers. Bratislava, Slovakia: UK, pp. 8-20.

Cynarski, W. J., & Walczak, J. (2010). Karate casus in Poland – towards sociology of martial arts. Journal of Combat Sports and Martial Arts, 1(2): 59–63.

Donohue, J. J. (1994). Warriors Dreams. The Martial Arts and the American Imagination. Westport, Connecticut – London, UK: Bergin & Garvey

Dooley, A. M. (2013). Mixed Martial Arts. On the Risk, 29(2): 63–67. doi:10.1007/978-1-84800-354-5_18

Figueiredo, A. A. (2010). International communities in martial arts and combat sports. In: W. J. Cynarski, K. Kubala, K. Obodynski (eds.), Proceedings of the 2nd World Scientific Congress of Combat Sports and Martial Arts. Rzeszow: Rzeszow University Press, p. 9.

Fuller, J. R. (1988). Martial arts and psychological health. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 61(Pt. 4): 317. Retrieved from http://articles.sirc.ca/search.cfm?id=275838

Golka, M. (2008), Sociology of Culture. Warsaw, Poland: WN Scholar (in Polish).

Goodger, B. C., & Goodger, J. M. (1977). Judo in the light of theory and sociological research. International Review of Sport Sociology, 12: 5-34.

Hamalainen, P., Ilmonen, T., Hoysniemi, J., Lindholm, M., & Nykanen, A. (2005). Martial arts in artificial reality. Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 1(1): 781–90. doi:10.1145/1054972.1055081 45. Hartl, J., Faber, U., & Bögle, R. (1989). Taekwon-Do in West. Munich, Germany: Mönchseulen-Verlag (in German).

Henning, S. E. (2005). Watching Your Back: Chinese Martial Arts and Traditional Medicine (review). China Review International. doi:10.1353/cri.2005.0137

Hoff, F. F. (1998). About the meaning of Budo and Bushido in modern times. In: M. von Saldern (ed.), Budō in Modern Times. Luneburg, Germany: Universität Lüneburg, pp. 65-79 (in German).

Jakhel, R., & Pieter, W. (2013). Changes in primary motives of karate beginners between 1970–1999. Ido Movement for Culture. Journal of Martial Arts Anthropology, 13(1): 48-57.

James, A., & Jones, R. (1982). The social world of karate-do. Leisure Studies, 1(3): 337-54.

Jeong, Myun Gim (1998), Leisure in fighting arts: American adaptation of Eastern Martial Arts. World Leisure & Recreation, 40(4): 11-6.

Jones, G., Mackay, K., & Peters, D. (2006). Participation motivation in martial artists in the West midlands region of England. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 5: 28-34.

Kitamura, T., Kawanishi, M., Hamada, H., Maesaka, S., & Ando, H. (2012). Expected outcomes of Budo education: The gap between teachers and students. In: T. Schlesinger, S. Günter, Y. Weigelt-Schlesinger, S. Nagel (eds.), Sport in Globalised Societies. Changes and Challenges. 9th Conference of eass. Book of Abstracts. Münster, Germany: Waxmann, p. 139.

Krawczyk, Z. (ed.) (1995). Sociology of Physical Culture. Warsaw, Poland: AWF (in Polish).

Krippendorf, K. (2004). Content Analysis: An Introduction to Its Methodology. Thousend Oaks, CA, USA: Sage.

Kusnierz, C. (2011). Values associated with practicing modern karate as a form of cultivating old Japanese Bushido patterns. Ido Movement for Culture. Journal of Martial Arts Anthropology, 11: 1-5.

Lakes, K. D., & Hoyt, W. T. (2004). Promoting self-regulation through school-based martial arts training. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 25(3): 283–302. doi: 10.1016/j.appdev.2004.04.002

Li, S. L. (2001). Kung Fu: negotiating nationalism and modernity. Cultural Studies, 15(3-4): 515-42.

Litwiniuk, A., & Cynarski, W. J. (2001). Motives of participation in chosen combat sports and martial arts. Ido – Ruch dla Kultury / Movement for Culture, 2: 242-4.

Llopis-Goig, R. (2015). A sociological analysis of martial arts in Spain. A focus on the recent evolution, characteristics and social profile of judo, karate and taekwondo practitioners. Ido Movement for Culture. Journal of Martial Arts Anthropology, 15(1): 23–30. doi: 10.14589/ido.15.1.4

Luhmann, N. (1985). Social Systems: Outline of a General Theory. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Suhrkamp (in German).

Maeda, H. (2000). Prosperous middle-aged women’s sports in Japan through some gender issues. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 35(4): 487-94.

Michelini, E. (2015). Disqualification of sport in health-related promotion of physical activity - A global social phenomenon? European Journal for Sport and Society, 12(3): 257-80.

Misztal, B. (2000). Sociological theory and social practice. Krakow, Poland: Universitas (in Polish).

Molle, A. (2010). Towards a Sociology of Budo: Studying the Implicit. Implicit Religion, 13(1).

Norden, G., & Polzer, N. (1995). Far Eastern sports and Western culture. Tai Chi in Austria and Taiwan. In: J. Winkler, K. Weis (eds.), Sociology of Sport. Opladen, Germany: Westdeutscher Verlag, pp. 187-200 (in German).

Obodynski, K., & Cynarski, W. J. (2007). Factors and barriers in the development of far eastern martial arts and combat sports. In: H. Itkonen, A.K. Salmikangas, E. McEvoy (eds.), The Changing Role of Public, Civic and Private Sectors in Sport Culture. Jyväskylä, Finland: University of Jyväskylä, pp. 257-266.

Orlando, B. (1997). Martial arts America: a Western approach to Eastern arts. Berkeley, Calif.: Frog, North Atlantic Books.

Panczyk, W., & Cynarski, W. J. (2006). Imitative forms of movement as a way of counteracting physical passivity of a contemporary man. Archives of Budo, 2: 45-52.

Parnabas, V., Shapie, M.N.M, & Parnabas, J. (2015). Motives of taking part in Malay Silat, Karate-Do and Taekwondo, Ido Movement for Culture. Journal of Martial Arts Anthropology, 15(3): 8–21. doi: 10.14589/ido.15.3.3

Pawelec, P., Slopecki, J., Sieber, L., & Rut, P. (2015). Scientific and martial arts’ tourism. The case study of the 3rd IMACSSS International Conference and Congress. Ido Movement for Culture. Journal of Martial Arts Anthropology, 15(1): 46–56. doi: 10.14589/ido.15.1.7

Ratti, O., & Westbrook, A. (1991). Secrets of the samurai; a survey of the martial arts of feudal Japan. Tokyo, Japan: Tuttle Publishing.

Reis, A. (2005). Capoeira: Health & Social Well-Being. Brasilia: Thesaurus.

Rosa, V.A.V. (2012). “Samurais” in modern Europe: motivations and understanding of Portuguese karatekas. Ido Movement for Culture. Journal of Martial Arts Anthropology, 12: 11-9.

Saldern, M. von (ed.) (1998). Budō in Modern Times. Lüneburg, Germany: Universität Lüneburg (in German).

Sanchez Garcia, R., & Malcolm, D. (2010). Decivilizing, civilizing or informalizing? The international development of Mixed Martial Arts. Int. Rev. Sociol. Sport, 45(1): 39–58. doi: 10.1177/1012690209352392

Sanchez Garcia, R., & Spencer, D. C. (eds.) (2013). Fighting Scholars: Habitus and Ethnographies of Martial Arts and Combat Sports. Anthem Press.

Shilling, C., & Mellor, P. A. (2007). Cultures of embodied experience: technology, religion and body pedagogics. The Sociological Review, 55(3): 531-549.

Shilling, C. (2008). Changing Bodies. London, UK: Sage.

Sieber, L., & Cynarski, W. J. (2012). Chapter 1.1. Towards a general theory of fighting arts. In: W. J. Cynarski (ed.), Martial Arts Phenomenon – Research and Multidisciplinary Interpretation. Rzeszow, Poland: Rzeszow University Press, pp. 16-26.

Skott, B. P. (2009). Table 17. Teaching the sociology of martial arts, paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Hilton San Francisco, CA, 2010-07-08 from http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p304726_index.html

Slezak, M. (2006). Use of narrative interview based on sociology of physical culture (Taking into consideration Eastern martial arts). Ido – Ruch dla Kultury / Movement for Culture, 6: 34-41.

Spencer, D. C. (2012). Ultimate fighting and embodiment. Violence, gender, and Mixed Martial Arts. New York, USA: Routledge.

Szajna, G., & Cynarski, W. J. (2015). Themes and conditions of the selection of fencing by the Polish epee-fencers. In: M. Zowisło, J. Kosiewicz (eds.), Sport and Tourism in the Mirror of Social Values. Krakow, Poland: AWF, pp. 533-544 (in Polish).

Theeboom, M., Knop, P. De, & Vertonghen, J. (2009). Experiences of children in martial arts. European Journal for Sport and Society, 6(1): 19–35.

Tokarski, S. (2003). Paradox of Martial Arts of Central Asia – Western Patterns of Expansion and Eastern Values. In: J. Kosiewicz, K. Obodynski (eds.), Sport in the Mirror of the Values. Rzeszow, Poland: PTNKF, pp. 112-118.

Van Bottenburg, M., & Heilbron, J. (2006). De-sportization of fighting contests: The origins and dynamics of no holds barred events and the theory of sportization. Int. Rev. Sociol. Sport. 41: 259–82.

Villamón, M., Brown, D., Espartero, J., & Gutiérrez, C. (2004). Reflexive modernization and the disembedding of judo from 1946 to the 2000 Sydney Olympics. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, (2): 139-156.

Witkowski, K., Cynarski, W. J., & Blazejewski, W. (2013). Motivations and determinants underlying the practice of martial arts and combat sports. Ido Movement for Culture. Journal of Martial Arts Anthropology, 13(1): 17-26. doi: 10.14589/ido.13.1.3

Weis, K., & Gugutzer, R. (2008). Manual of Sport Sociology. Hofmann, Germany (in German).

Weiss, O. (1999). Introduction to the Sociology of Sport. Vienna, Austria (in German).

Woodward, T. W. (2009). A review of the effects of martial arts practice on health. WMJ: Official Publication of the State Medical Society of Wisconsin, 108(1): 40–43.

Zaggelidis, G., Martinidis, K., & Zaggelidis, S. (2004). Comparative study of factors - motives in beginning practicing judo and karate. Physical Training: Fitness for Combative, 1: 1-8.

Zeng, H. Z., Cynarski, W. J., Baatz, S., & Park, S. J. (2015). Exploring motivations of taekwondo athletes/students in New York City. World Journal of Education, 5(5): 51-63.

Zeng, Z. H., Cynarski, W. J., & Xie, L. S. (2013). Martial Arts Anthropology, Participants’ Motivation and Behaviours. Martial Arts in Chanshu: Participants’ Motivation, Practice Times and Health Behaviours. Saarbrücken, Germany: Lambert Academic Publishing.

Znaniecki, F. (1934). The Method of Sociology. New York, USA.




Copyright (c) 2018 Arrancada

Licencia de Creative Commons
Este obra está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial-SinObraDerivada 4.0 Internacional.